All you need to learn the basic theory

Discussion in 'Music Talk' started by J.J, Nov 30, 2005.

  1. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Table of Contents:

    1.0 - Introduction
    1.1 - Where to start?
    1.2 - The first 10 things to learn

    2.0 - What Intervals and Steps are
    2.1 - Interval guide
    2.2 - Steps
    2.3 - Tones and Semi-tones

    3.0 - Understanding the Chromatic scale

    4.0 - The major scale
    4.1 - Triads

    5.0 - The Circle of Fifths and Key Signatures Introduction
    5.1 - The Circle of Fifths
    5.2 - Key Signatures- How they work

    6.0 - Chord Construction
    6.1 - Extending
    6.2 - Altering
    6.3 - Suspended Chords
    6.4 - Inversions

    7.0 - The meaning of 'Diatonic' and what it does
    7.1 - Diatonic in chords
    7.2 - Diatonic in scales
    7.3 - E# and B# DO exist

    8.0 - Finding out what chords are in what key

    9.0 - Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor, Melodic Minor scales Introduction
    9.1 - Natural Minor Scale
    9.2 - Harmonic Minor Scale
    9.3.0 - Melodic Minor Ascending
    9.3.1 - Melodic Minor Descending
    9.4 - What chords do these scales go with?

    10.0 - The Modes of the Major scale Introduction
    10.1 - Using the intervals
    10.2 - Using the Steps
    10.3 - Using the modes over chords

    11.0 - Applying #1-9 on the guitar Introduction
    11.1 - Applying 'What Intervals and Steps are'
    11.2 - Applying 'Understanding the Chromatic Scale'
    11.3 - Applying 'The major scale and Triads'
    11.4 - Applying 'Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales'
    11.5 - Applying 'The Modes of the Major scale'

    1.0 - Introduction.
    So you've seen people talking their heads off about "Lydian sharp 11 dominant 9" and you have no idea what they're talking about, or maybe you're interested in starting to learn music theory. Well, it's a great choice to come this route, as theory can make your music excel to great heights, and it lets you know what you're doing, and why. I chose to learn music theory because I wasn't much of a song writer and wanted my music to sound good. Plus, on the forums on this site, I would visit "Musicians Talk" and not know what was going on. So I've learned quite a bit and have prepared this list for you, someone new to music theory, or someone who needs a nice refresher. In this lesson, you will need no knowledge of previous theory, but you will need to know that the notes only go to G and what sharps (#) and flats (b) are. Also keep in mind you might see parts from other lesson I have written, as I can copy from them all I want, but if I didn’t write the lesson, I will link to it. Have fun!

    1.1 - Where to start?
    Since I am an avid believer of not using steps, except for the major scale, you are going to have to learn what intervals are, and what steps are. Once you have learned how to get the major scale, all the #9, and b7 will come into the clear and become understandable. The major scale is the basis of which pretty much all chords and scales are derived from. If you've ever heard "1 3 5" or "1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1" you will know that those 'formulas' are in relation to the major scale.

    1.2 - The first 10 things to learn.
    This is a list for easy reference, and everything is explained down the in this article. 1, being the first thing to learn, etc.

    01. What Intervals and Steps are
    02. Understanding the Chromatic Scale
    03. The major scale
    04. The Circle of Fifths and Key signatures.
    05. Chord Construction
    06. The meaning of 'Diatonic' and what it does
    07. Finding out what chords are in what key
    08. Natural Minor, Harmonic Minor and Melodic Minor Scales
    09. The Modes of the Major scale
    10. Applying 1-9 on the guitar

    I will go into each and every one of these so you, the beginner can understand them.

    2.0 - What Intervals and Steps are.
    First, I'll start with intervals and steps, as they are critical in learning how everything works, and they help you understand the major scale, and almost everything on this list. And interval is the space between one note and another. When you see 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1, those are intervals. Learning intervals is very important when learning everything in this article, because I dislike steps. I will get into that more in the steps section.

    2.1 - Interval guide.
    This is an easy reference chart to look at for naming intervals. This example is in the key of C, for simplicity, but can be applied to any root note to find the intervals of that key.



    Interval | Name | Note.(In C)
    -----------------------------------------------
    1 | Unison (root note) | C
    b2 | Minor Second | Db
    2 | Major Second | D
    #2 | Sharp Second | D#
    b3 | Minor Third | Eb
    3 | Major Third | E
    4 | Perfect Fourth | F
    #4 | Augmented Fourth | F#
    b5 | Diminished Fifth | Gb
    5 | Perfect Fifth | G
    #5 | Augmented Fifth | G#
    b6 | Minor Sixth | Ab
    6 | Major Sixth | A
    #6 | Sharp Sixth | A#
    bb7 | Diminished Seventh | A
    b7 | Minor Seventh | Bb
    7 | Major Seventh | B
    8 | Unison (Octave higher) | C
    b9 | Minor Ninth | Db
    9 | Major Ninth | D
    #9 | Sharp Ninth | D#
    ------------------------------------------------

    etc.

    The intervals repeat, where 2 = 9, 3 = 10, 4 = 11, etc. Notice that you're adding 7 to get the octave higher interval. For those who don’t know what an octave is: An octave is the same exact note only played higher. Ex. Middle C on a piano, and the next C, going higher are an octave apart. Just like b9 is an octave higher than b2.

    When dealing with intervalic inversions (more on that later, this needs to be said in the interval seciton) you need to know a couple things. You have 4 perfect intervals. Unison, Fourth, Fifth, and Octave. A perfect interval inverts to a perfect interval, and when you ad the interval numbers together, you will always get 9. So if you know a P4 inverts to another perfect interval, you know (9-4 = 5, P inverts to P) so a P4 inverts to a P5. Same thing with unison. Unison inverts to the octave. The other intervals (2, 3, 6, 7) are either minor or major, and a major interval inverts to a minor one, and vise versa. So with your formula, you can find that a minor third inverts to a major sixth (3 + 6 = 9). Then an augmented interval inverts to a diminished interval. A perfect interval goes right to diminished when its flattened, and all intervals go right to augmented when sharpenned. An inverted interval is the same as a normal interval but instead of going up the chart (1-b2, ex) you are going down. Heres a chart for your inversions.



    P1 - P8
    m2 - M7
    M2 - m7
    m3 - M6
    M3 - m6
    P4 - P5
    A4 - D5

    D7 - A2

    P = Perfect
    m = Minor
    M = Major
    D = Diminished
    A = Augmented

    Some intervals aren't used as much as others, but still exist. b10 is still an acceptable name, but will more commonly be call #9. 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths are used more often than their enharmonic (Enharmonic- Same note; different name) siblings.

    2.2 - Steps, 2.3 - Tones And Semi-Tones.
    Steps. These are what many beginners use to form scales and the such, but here’s what I'm going to do. I'll explain the steps and show you how to use them, but it’s up to you whether you use steps or intervals. A choice! Steps can identify how far two notes are apart and they can (if you must) form scales. There are two common types of steps. A whole step and a half step. A whole step (Indicated by the letter 'W') which is two frets. E - F# is a whole step. I've seen people who think E-F is a whole step. It is not. Two frets! This makes a half step self explanatory. It's one fret. E-F, G-G# and half steps apart. This will all make sense after reading the section just below, 3. 0- Understanding the Chromatic scale. Right now steps might seem a little pointless but they play a big part in the next section.

    Tones and semitones are the same as steps, just with a different name. I use steps throughout, but you can think of them as tones throughout:



    T = Tone = Whole step
    S = Semitone = Half Step

    3.0- Understanding the Chromatic scale.
    The Chromatic is very simple and easy to understand but it is important and it's very helpful to know. It makes it a breeze to memorize the notes on the fret board, and just know notes in general. The Chromatic scale is a series of 12 notes starting from any note (doesn’t matter which one... You could use D# for all I care) and going up by half steps. Ex. Playing any open string, and preceding to play each note, going up by one fret each time will give you a chromatic scale. But... There’s a catch! Not every note has a sharp/flat between them. This applies to all the notes except between B - C and E - F. There is nothing between B - C and E - F. Your chromatic scale (in C) is:


    C C#/Db D D#/Eb E F F#/Gb G G#/Ab A A#/Bb B C

    Remember the enharmonic notes! D# is enharmonic to Eb. It is indicated with a '/'.

    Know it inside and out, as you should. Very important stuff. As short of a section this takes, it is just as important as the others.
     
  2. .:SpY_GaMe:.

    .:SpY_GaMe:. New Member

    woooooooooow seem to b soome really hard work^^^reps if allows me ........
     
  3. sixstringsin

    sixstringsin ||||||

  4. bjr

    bjr Lady of the Evening

    haha, nice work 6string.



    While I don't really have a problem with plagiarism (and believe me, this particular one was painfully obvious considering that the index was for 10 chapters and the content was for 2), most people do and the intent here was clearly just to earn reps for yourself.


    I'll tell you what....I'm a fair person so I'll leave this thread open for a day so JJ might say anything he wants to in his own defense and others can have their say if they want to after which I'll lock (or delete) it.
     
  5. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    me just trying to put all that in order and YES this IS copied from ultimate guitar...but i am just putting that in order and i DON'T need ANY reps i JUST want to help and thats that...
     
  6. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Now for some scales

    Minor Pentatonic.
    I'm doing this one first because it appears more commonly in mainstream music than its major counterpart, from what I've seen. It’s also more popular with the beginners and experienced players alike.

    Your Minor Pentatonic scale formula is: 1 b3 4 5 b7 1. In A, that’s A C D E G A. You can find all the scales for what ever key you want, but you might prefer boxes. There are 5 box patterns for the pentatonic scale. I'll give you one for minor, one for major, and then the other 3. The most common one for minor being:



    e|-|-O-|---|---|-o-|---|
    B|-|-o-|---|---|-o-|---|
    G|-|-o-|---|-o-|---|---|
    D|-|-o-|---|-O-|---|---|
    A|-|-o-|---|-o-|---|---|
    E|-|-O-|---|---|-o-|---|

    The O's represent the root notes, and the lower case o's represent the other notes. This is the most common box and is used in rock, blues and any other genre with distortion, really. Although you can turn the distortion off and play some jazz with this scale, it also sounds good with heavy metal alike. Try experimenting with it to see how it fits your style. A common choice for using the minor pentatonic is over power chords (_5), or in blues songs with dominant chords (_7).

    Major Pentatonic.
    The major pentatonic is like the minor pentatonic, in the way that the relative minor/majors share the same notes. Ex. C major pentatonic has the same notes as Am pentatonic. The formula for major pentatonic is 1 2 3 5 6 1. In C, you have C D E G A C. You can find those notes on the neck and here is your major pentatonic box pattern.



    e|-|---|-O-|---|-o-|---|
    B|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    G|-|-o-|---|-o-|---|---|
    D|-|-o-|---|---|-O-|---|
    A|-|-o-|---|---|-o-|---|
    E|-|---|-O-|---|-o-|---|

    The major pentatonic is used where ever you might find the minor pentatonic. The major pentatonic sounds happier, and more upbeat than the minor pentatonic, but can still be used in a rock context. This sounds good over major chords, and power chords a like. You can use this in a jazzy song even.

    The other 3 Box Patterns, of the minor pentatonic. If you want to make them minor, all you have to do is change the root note to the reletive major. (See link in introduction)



    e|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    B|-|---|-O-|---|---|-o-|
    G|-|-o-|---|---|-o-|---|
    D|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    A|-|---|-o-|---|-O-|---|
    E|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|

    e|-|---|-o-|---|-O-|---|
    B|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    G|-|-O-|---|---|-o-|---|
    D|-|-o-|---|---|-o-|---|
    A|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    E|-|---|-o-|---|-O-|---|

    e|-|-o-|---|---|-o-|---|
    B|-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    G|-|-o-|---|-O-|---|---|
    D|-|-o-|---|-o-|---|---|
    A|-|-O-|---|-o-|---|---|
    E|-|-o-|---|---|-o-|---|

    So practice those 5 boxes until you feel comfortable with them, and expand them, by knowing what notes are in the scales, and finding them on the fret board. By being able to use these scales in your playing, you'll be on your way to be the next ACDC/Led Zeppelin/Any classic rock act in no time, as the pentatonic scale is one of the fundamentals in rock.

    Using the pentatonic scales in riffs and solos.
    Here are some classic riffs that use the pentatonic scale, and then I'll give you some homemade pentatonic licks to impress your friends with First, heres the minor pentatonic extended:



    e|-|---|---|---|---|---|-o-|---|-o-|
    B|-|---|---|---|---|---|-o-|---|-O-|
    G|-|---|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|
    D|-|---|---|-o-|---|-O-|---|---|---|
    A|-|-o-|---|-o-|---|-o-|---|---|---|
    E|-|-o-|---|-O-|---|---|---|---|---|

    This box is slightly harder to remember, but it adds more notes to the box, so that you can extend your playing in general with the pentatonic.

    Black Dog - Led Zeppelin.
    Chances are if you've heard this song, you think it’s hard. It really isn’t, and is built from the minor pentatonic scale, with some added notes, for flow. Here it is:



    2/4 4/4 5/4
    |-3-|
    E E E E E E Q Q E E E E E E E Q Q E E E E E E E E +Q
    |---------|-------------------|---------------------|-----------------------||
    |---------|-----------------5-|---------------------|-----------------------||
    |---------|-----5b5.5-----7---|-5h7p5-----5b5.5-----|-----------------------||
    |-----5-6-|-7----------7------|-------7-7--------7--|-5-7-7---------2-(2)---||
    |---7-----|---7---------------|---------------------|-------5-7S3-5-0-(0)---||
    |---------|-------------------|---------------------|-----------------------||

    Try that out and see how you like it.

    Try looking at some solos by ACDC, for some good pentatonic licks, as Angus Young likes to use the minor pentatonic. Here’s part of the solo of "Back in Black"



    Back In Black - AC/DC
    |--3--| |--3--|
    S S S S a +S a +E a +S +E S S S S S S a
    |------12-12---------------------------------------12----------------------|
    |---12-------15b17-(15)-15b17-(15)-15b17-(15)-(15)----15p12----12----------|
    |-----------------------------------------------------------14----12-14b16-|
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------|

    |---3---|
    +E S a +E S a S +S S S S S E. +E S S
    |---------------------15-------------------------------------------------|
    |------15----------------------------------------------------------------|
    |-(14)----14b16==(14)----(14)pb16-14r(14)p12-14----12-14--(14)\----------|
    |-----------------------------------------------14---------------/14-14--|
    |------------------------------------------------------------------------|
    |------------------------------------------------------------------------|

    Now here's some licks to impress your friends!

    |----------------5~--5h8p5------||
    |-----5------5h8----------8p5~--||
    |-7b9----7b9--------------------||
    |-------------------------------||
    |-------------------------------||
    |-------------------------------||

    |-----------------------------||
    |-----------------------------||
    |---------5h7p5-----------7~--||
    |-----5h7-------7p5-----7-----||
    |-5h7---------------7p5-------||
    |-----------------------------||

    |---------------------------------------------15-12-12-12----12-12-12----12-15-17-15~-||
    |-------15------------------------15----------------------15----------15--------------||
    |-14b16----14-12---12h14-14-14b16---14~-12h14-----------------------------------------||
    |----------------14-------------------------------------------------------------------||
    |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------||
    |-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------||
     
  7. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Major scales:

    A major
    E0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    B0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    G-|1-|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|--|13|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|--|
    D0|--|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    A0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    E0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|

    B major
    E0|--|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    B0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    G-|1-|--|3-|4-|--|6-|--|8-|9-|--|11|--|13|--|15|16|--|18|--|20|21|--|23|--|
    D-|1-|2-|--|4-|--|6-|--|8-|9-|--|11|--|13|14|--|16|--|18|--|20|21|--|23|--|
    A-|1-|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|--|13|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|--|
    E0|--|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|24|

    C major
    E0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    B0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|6-|--|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|18|--|20|--|22|--|24|
    G0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    D0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    A0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    E0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|

    D major
    E0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    B0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    G0|--|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    D0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    A0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    E0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|

    E major
    E0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    B0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    G-|1-|2-|--|4-|--|6-|--|8-|9-|--|11|--|13|14|--|16|--|18|--|20|21|--|23|--|
    D-|1-|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|--|13|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|--|
    A0|--|2-|--|4-|--|6-|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|--|18|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    E0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|--|23|24|

    F major
    E0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|6-|--|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|18|--|20|--|22|--|24|
    B-|1-|--|3-|--|5-|6-|--|8-|--|10|11|--|13|--|15|--|17|18|--|20|--|22|23|--|
    G0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    D0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    A0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    E0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|6-|--|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|18|--|20|--|22|--|24|

    G major
    E0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    B0|1-|--|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|13|--|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
    G0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|--|11|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|--|23|24|
    D0|--|2-|--|4-|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|--|16|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    A0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|--|9-|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|--|21|22|--|24|
    E0|--|2-|3-|--|5-|--|7-|8-|--|10|--|12|--|14|15|--|17|--|19|20|--|22|--|24|
     
  8. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Blues scale in A:
    e-|--|--|3-|--|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|11|12|--|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|24|
    B-|--|--|3-|4-|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|--|--|13|--|15|16|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|--|
    G-|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|8-|9-|--|--|12|--|14|--|--|17|--|19|20|21|--|--|24|
    D-|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|--|--|10|--|12|13|14|--|--|17|--|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    A-|--|--|3-|--|5-|6-|7-|--|--|10|--|12|--|--|15|--|17|18|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    E-|--|--|3-|--|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|11|12|--|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|23|24|

    Blues scale in B:
    e-|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|--|--|10|--|12|13|14|--|--|17|--|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    B-|--|--|3-|--|5-|6-|7-|--|--|10|--|12|--|--|15|--|17|18|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    G-|--|2-|--|4-|--|--|7-|--|9-|10|11|--|--|14|--|16|--|--|19|--|21|22|23|--|
    D-|--|2-|3-|4-|--|--|7-|--|9-|--|--|12|--|14|15|16|--|--|19|--|21|--|--|24|
    A-|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|8-|9-|--|--|12|--|14|--|--|17|--|19|20|21|--|--|24|
    E-|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|--|--|10|--|12|13|14|--|--|17|--|19|--|--|22|--|24|

    Blues scale in C:
    e-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|--|--|11|--|13|14|15|--|--|18|--|20|--|--|23|--|
    B-|--|--|--|4-|--|6-|7-|8-|--|--|11|--|13|--|--|16|--|18|19|20|--|--|23|--|
    G-|--|--|3-|--|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|11|12|--|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|23|24|
    D-|--|--|3-|4-|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|--|--|13|--|15|16|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|--|
    A-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|9-|10|--|--|13|--|15|--|--|18|--|20|21|22|--|--|
    E-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|--|--|11|--|13|14|15|--|--|18|--|20|--|--|23|--|

    Blues scale in D:
    e-|--|--|3-|4-|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|--|--|13|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|--|
    B-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|9-|10|--|--|13|--|15|--|--|18|--|20|21|22|--|--|
    G-|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|--|--|10|--|12|13|14|--|--|17|--|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    D-|--|--|3-|--|5-|6-|7-|--|--|10|--|12|--|--|15|--|17|18|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    A-|--|--|3-|--|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|11|12|--|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|23|24|
    E-|--|--|3-|4-|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|--|--|13|--|15|16|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|--|

    Blues scale in E:
    e0|--|--|3-|--|5-|6-|7-|--|--|10|--|12|--|--|15|--|17|18|19|--|--|20|--|24|
    B0|--|--|3-|--|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|11|12|--|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|23|24|
    G0|--|2-|3-|4-|--|--|7-|--|9-|--|--|12|--|14|15|16|--|--|19|--|21|--|--|24|
    D0|--|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|8-|9-|--|--|12|--|14|--|--|17|--|19|20|21|--|--|24|
    A0|1-|2-|--|--|5-|--|7-|--|--|10|--|12|13|14|--|--|17|--|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    E0|--|--|3-|--|5-|6-|7-|--|--|10|--|12|--|--|15|--|17|18|19|--|--|22|--|24|

    Blues scale in F:
    e-|1-|--|--|4-|--|6-|7-|8-|--|--|11|--|13|--|--|16|--|18|19|20|--|--|23|--|
    B-|1-|--|--|4-|--|6-|--|--|9-|--|11|12|13|--|--|16|--|18|--|--|21|--|23|24|
    G-|1-|--|3-|4-|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|--|--|13|--|15|16|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|--|
    D-|1-|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|9-|10|--|--|13|--|15|--|--|18|--|20|21|22|--|--|
    A-|1-|2-|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|--|--|11|--|13|14|15|--|--|18|--|20|--|--|23|--|
    E-|1-|--|--|4-|--|6-|7-|8-|--|--|11|--|13|--|--|16|--|18|19|20|--|--|23|--|

    Blues scale in G:
    e-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|9-|10|--|--|13|--|15|--|--|18|--|20|21|22|--|--|
    B-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|--|--|11|--|13|14|15|--|--|18|--|20|--|--|23|--|
    G-|--|--|3-|--|5-|6-|7-|--|--|10|--|12|--|--|15|--|17|18|19|--|--|22|--|24|
    D-|--|--|3-|--|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|11|12|--|--|15|--|17|--|--|20|--|22|23|24|
    A-|--|--|3-|4-|5-|--|--|8-|--|10|--|--|13|--|15|16|17|--|--|20|--|22|--|--|
    E-|--|--|3-|--|--|6-|--|8-|9-|10|--|--|13|--|15|--|--|18|--|20|21|22|--|--|
     
  9. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Harmonic Minor.
    The formula for the Harmonic minor scale is:



    1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7

    For example, take C major scale (C D E F G A B C) and apply the harmonic minor formula to it:


    C major: C D E F G A B C
    Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

    C Harmonic Minor: C D Eb F G Ab B C
    Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 1

    So C harmonic minor would look like this:


    |-----------------|----------------------|
    |---------------1-|----------------------|
    |---------0-1-4---|----------------------|
    |---0-1-3---------|-----------------9-10-|
    |-3---------------|---------8-10-11------|
    |-----------------|-8-10-11--------------|

    This formula applies to all major scales. A, for example:


    A major: A B C# D E F# G# A
    Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

    A Harmonic Minor: A B C D E F G# A
    Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 1

    A harmonic minor looks like this:


    |-----------------|-----------------|
    |-----------------|-----------------|
    |-------------1-2-|-----------------|
    |-------0-2-3-----|-------------6-7-|
    |-0-2-3-----------|-------5-7-8-----|
    |-----------------|-5-7-8-----------|

    The harmonic minor is very close to the natual minor scale. The only thing that sets it apart, is its major seventh. With a raised seventh, this takes away possibilities of playing the scale over dominant 7, and m7 chords. The lowered third takes away the possibility of playing it over major chords and maj7 chords. That doesn'y mean that you can't play it over those chords. Be creative.

    The only chord you can play this scale over without it sound notes from the scale clashing with chords tones, is a minor chord. You can experiment with playing it over m7, m6 and other minor chords, but you might have some bad notes. You can play harmonic minor is styles such as classical, metal, shred (think Yngwie Malmsteen), and neo-classical styles.

    Melodic Minor.
    Melodic minor is very close to the major scale, the only thing that seperates it is the flat third (b3). So, the formula for Melodic Minor is:



    1 2 b3 4 5 6 7

    Lets use C for the first example again.


    C major: C D E F G A B C
    Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

    C Melodic Minor: C D Eb F G A B C
    Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 1

    C Melodic Minor looks like this:


    |-----------------|----------------------|
    |-------------0-1-|----------------------|
    |---------0-2-----|----------------------|
    |---0-1-3---------|-----------------9-10-|
    |-3---------------|---------8-10-12------|
    |-----------------|-8-10-11--------------|

    That formula is also universal. Lets apply it to E.


    E major: E F# G# A B C# D# E
    Intervals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

    E Melodic Minor: E F# G A B C# D# E
    Intervals: 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 1

    E Melodic Minor looks like this:


    |-----------------|-------------------|
    |-----------------|-------------------|
    |-----------------|---------------8-9-|
    |-------------1-2-|--------7-9-11-----|
    |-------0-2-4-----|-7-9-10------------|
    |-0-2-3-----------|-------------------|

    You can use the Melodic Minor scale over chords where you would play another minor scale or pentatonic scale. You can play melodic minor over minor chords, m6 chords, and m/maj7 chords. But, since the melodic minor scale is so close to the major scale, you could play it in the place of major scale, major pentatonic, Lydian mode and Mixolydian modes. The melodic minor scale does not sound perfect over everything because of its flat third (b3) and natural 7 (7). If the seventh was lowered, it would be Dorian Mode. See lesson on modes: (insert link to mode lesson when on site). Melodic minor is used to solo in style such as jazz and funk. The Melodic minor scale is especially good for Jazz styles because it is so close to Dorian Mode (Dorian is as important to Jazz as is the pentatonic is to Rock). It is good for funk because of its Major scale feel, and minor scale sound.

    Melodic Minor (descending).
    The second part to the Melodic minor scale. You have already learned the Melodic Minor Scale (Ascending), and now its time for Descending.

    The formula for Melodic minor (Descending) is the same as natural minor (1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1). The point of this second scale is to act as a leading tone, just going down. In the next two examples, I will will show you how to practice these scales at the same time, and an example lick using both ascending and descending scales.

    How to play these when practicing



    |----Ascending----|----Descending-----|
    |-----------------|-------------------|
    |-----------------|-------------------|
    |-----------------|-------------------|
    |-------------1-2-|-(2)-0-------------|
    |-------0-2-4-----|-------3-2-0-------|
    |-0-2-3-----------|-------------3-2-0-|

    Using both in a short lick


    |---------Descending-------|----------Ascending----------|
    |-12b14--------------------|-----------------------------|
    |--------15-12-------------|-------------16--------------|
    |--------------14-12-------|-------16-18-----18-16-------|
    |--------------------14----|-14s16-----------------16s13-|
    |--------------------------|-----------------------------|
    |--------------------------|-----------------------------|

    |--------------------------|
    |--------------------------|
    |--------------12b14-------|
    |-----13h16p13--------14---|
    |-16-----------------------|
    |--------------------------|
     
  10. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Ionian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1

    Dorian - 1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 1

    Phrygian - 1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

    Lydian - 1 2 3 #4 5 6 7 1

    Mixolydian - 1 2 3 4 5 6 b7 1

    Aeolian - 1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 1

    Locrian - 1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7 1

    Ionian- Ionian mode is just the name for the major scale. It has no alterations made to it. Play this mode over Major chords, Maj7, Maj6.

    Dorian- Dorian mode has a flattened third and seventh (b3 and b7) making it ideal for m7 chords. You can also use Dorian mode for m6 chords. Dorian mode is often used in jazz styles.

    Phrygian- Phrygian mode has a lowered second, third, sixth, and seventh. Phrygian has a Spanish feel to it so you can Play it over spanish progressions or heavy metal/rock riffs with a b2.

    Lydian- Lydian mode's only alteration is a raised fourth (#4) making it very close to the major scale. The #4 makes it a good chord to use for Maj7#11 chords, but can also be used over maj7 chords.

    Mixolydian- The only alteration in Mixolydian mode is the lowered seventh (b7). This makes it perfect for dominant 7th chords. This mode can be used in blues, jazz or even country.

    Aeolian- Aeolian mode, a.k.a. the minor scale has a b3, b6 and b7. (All minor scales have a b3). Aeolian mode works over minor chords, and can be used as a substitute for Dorian mode, by using it over m7 chords.

    Locrian- Locrian mode has a b2, b3, b5, b6 and b7. Locrain mode is very dark sounding. It fits a m7b5 chord perfectly.

    Mode Dictionary.
    To find the mode you want press Ctrl+F, then type the note, and mode. (ex. C Ionian). Each entry has the name of the mode, the notes that are found in it, and the TAB for it.



    Legend.
    #= sharp
    b= flat
    bb= double flat

    Ab Ionian (Ab Bb C Db Eb F G Ab):
    |-----------------------------4----|
    |-------------------------6-8------|
    |-------------------5-6-8----------|
    |-------------5-6-8----------------|
    |-------4-6-8----------------------|
    |-4-6-8----------------------------|

    Ab Dorian (Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb Ab):
    |-----------------------------4----|
    |-------------------------6-7------|
    |-------------------4-6-8----------|
    |-------------4-6-8----------------|
    |-------4-6-8----------------------|
    |-4-6-7----------------------------|

    Ab Phrygian (Ab Bbb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab):
    |-----------------------------4----|
    |-------------------------5-7------|
    |-------------------4-6-8----------|
    |-------------4-6-7----------------|
    |-------4-6-7----------------------|
    |-4-5-7----------------------------|

    Ab Lydian (Ab Bb C D Eb F G Ab):
    |-------------------------------4--|
    |-------------------------5-7-8----|
    |-------------------5-7-8----------|
    |-------------5-6-8----------------|
    |-------5-6-8----------------------|
    |-4-6-8----------------------------|

    Ab Mixolydian (Ab Bb C Db Eb F Gb Ab):
    |-----------------------------4----|
    |-------------------------6-7------|
    |-------------------5-6-8----------|
    |-------------4-6-8----------------|
    |-------4-6-8----------------------|
    |-4-6-8----------------------------|

    Ab Aeloian (Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb Ab):
    |-----------------------------4----|
    |-----------------------4-5-7------|
    |-------------------4-6------------|
    |-------------4-6-8----------------|
    |-------4-6-7----------------------|
    |-4-6-7----------------------------|

    Ab Locrian (Ab Bbb Cb Db Ebb Fb Gb Ab):
    |-----------------------------4----|
    |-------------------------5-7------|
    |-------------------4-6-7----------|
    |-------------4-6-7----------------|
    |-------4-5-7----------------------|
    |-4-5-7----------------------------|

    ___________________________________

    A Ionian (A B C# D E F# G# A):
    |-----------------------------5----|
    |-------------------------7-9------|
    |-------------------6-7-9----------|
    |-------------6-7-9----------------|
    |-------5-7-9----------------------|
    |-5-7-9----------------------------|

    A Dorian (A B C D E F# G A):
    |------------------------------5---|
    |--------------------------7-8-----|
    |--------------------5-7-9---------|
    |-------------5-7--9---------------|
    |-------5-7-9----------------------|
    |-5-7-8----------------------------|

    A Phrygian (A Bb C D E F G A):
    |-----------------------------5----|
    |-------------------------6-8------|
    |-------------------5-7-9----------|
    |-------------5-7-8----------------|
    |-------5-7-8----------------------|
    |-5-6-8----------------------------|

    A Lydian (A B C# D# E F# G# A):
    |-----------------------------5----|
    |-------------------------7-9------|
    |-------------------6-8-9----------|
    |-------------6-7-9----------------|
    |-------6-7-9----------------------|
    |-5-7-9----------------------------|

    A Mixolydian (A B C# D E F# G A):
    |-----------------------------5----|
    |-------------------------7-8------|
    |-------------------6-7-9----------|
    |-------------5-7-9----------------|
    |-------5-7-9----------------------|
    |-5-7-9----------------------------|

    A Aeolian (A B C D E F G A):
    |-----------------------------5----|
    |-------------------------6-8------|
    |-------------------5-7-9----------|
    |-------------5-7-9----------------|
    |-------5-7-8----------------------|
    |-5-7-8----------------------------|

    A Locrian (A Bb C D Eb F G A):
    |-----------------------------5----|
    |-------------------------6-8------|
    |-------------------5-7-8----------|
    |-------------5-7-8----------------|
    |-------5-6-8----------------------|
    |-5-6-8----------------------------|


    And like that play in any key but this is the pattern
     
  11. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Major Pentatonics

    || - | - | 8 | - | 10 |
    b|| - | - | 8 | - | 10 |
    g|| - | 7 | - | 9 | - |
    d|| - | 7 | - | - | 10 |
    a|| - | 7 | - | - | 10 |
    E|| - | - | 8 | - | 10 |

    or in Tab form:


    e|-------------------------8-10--------
    B|--------------------8-10-------------
    G|----------------7-9------------------
    D|-----------7-10----------------------
    A|------7-10---------------------------
    E|-8-10--------------------------------


    Here is an example of a simple impro using no fancy techniques just descending the scale. It may not sound amazing but it still fits with the chords C E and G:



    C E
    e|--------------8-10-11-12-13-14-12------------------
    B|---------8-10--------------------14-12-------------
    G|-----7-9-------------------------------13-11-------
    D|--10----------------------------------------14-11--
    A|---------------------------------------------------
    E|---------------------------------------------------

    E G
    e|-------------------------------13-15-15-15---------
    B|-------------------------13-15-------------13-15---
    G|----------------12-13-14---------------------------
    D|-14-11-14-11-14------------------------------------
    A|---------------------------------------------------
    E|---------------------------------------------------

    G
    e|---------------------------------------------------
    B|---------------------------------------------------
    G|-14-12---------------------------------------------
    D|-------15-12---------------------------------------
    A|-------------15-12---------------------------------
    E|-------------------15-12---------------------------

    Pentatonic Majors sound good with metal, blues and even punk.
     
  12. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Legend:
    R = Root Note
    1 = Index Finger
    2 = Middle Finger
    3 = Ring Finger
    4 = Pinky Finger

    1: A Natural Minor (Two Octaves)
    e|------------------------------5------------------------------|
    B|------------------------5-6-8---8-6-5------------------------|
    G|------------------4-5-7---------------7-5-4------------------|
    D|--------------5-7---------------------------7-5--------------|
    A|--------5-7-8-----------------------------------8-7-5--------|
    E|--5-7-8-----------------------------------------------8-7-5--|
    R R R R R
    1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 3 1 4 3 1 4 3 1


    2: A Harmonic Minor (Two Octaves)
    e|----------------------------4-5-4----------------------------|
    B|------------------------5-6-------6-5------------------------|
    G|--------------------5-7---------------7-5--------------------|
    D|--------------6-7-9-----------------------9-7-6--------------|
    A|--------5-7-8-----------------------------------8-7-5--------|
    E|--5-7-8-----------------------------------------------8-7-5--|
    R R R R R
    1 3 4 1 3 4 2 3 4 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 4 3 2 4 3 1 4 3 1


    3: A Major (Two Octaves)
    e|----------------------------4-5-4----------------------------|
    B|------------------------5-7-------7-5------------------------|
    G|------------------4-6-7---------------7-6-4------------------|
    D|------------4-6-7---------------------------7-6-4------------|
    A|------4-5-7---------------------------------------7-5-4------|
    E|--5-7---------------------------------------------------7-5--|
    R R R R R
    1 4 1 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 4 2 4 1 2 1 4 2 4 3 1 4 3 1 4 2 1 4 1

    Note: when the pentatonic scales are played, an additional note is often added in at the end of the scale. Its perfectly fine not to play this note at all. I have put the note in brackets. This applies to Scale 4 and 5.


    4: A Pentatonic Minor (Two Octaves)
    e|----------------------5-(8)-5----------------------|
    B|------------------5-8---------8-5------------------|
    G|--------------5-7-----------------7-5--------------|
    D|----------5-7-------------------------7-5----------|
    A|------5-7---------------------------------7-5------|
    E|--5-8-----------------------------------------8-5--|
    R R R R R R
    1 4 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 4 1


    5: A Pentatonic Major (Two Octaves)
    e|----------------------5-(7)-5----------------------|
    B|------------------5-7---------7-5------------------|
    G|--------------4-6-----------------6-4--------------|
    D|----------4-7-------------------------7-4----------|
    A|------4-7---------------------------------7-4------|
    E|--5-7-----------------------------------------7-5--|
    R R R R R R
    1 4 1 4 1 4 1 3 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 3 1 4 1 4 1 4 1

    Ok, so there are the basic scales. Practise them through at take notice of the finger patterns, as they are quite cumfortable once you get used to them.

    "Great, after a bit of practise you can make up some short solo licks and put together a solo (Particularly using the minor pentatonic, which I generally find is easiest). So, your playing along with your band, come to take your solo, and it sounds great, except, you're stuck. It sounds good but needs more variety in pitch, needs to go a bit higher up.

    Well how can you do that? The easy way out would be just to raise the pattern 12 frets, but this usually ends up sounding out of place." The above descibes how I was, still partly am, and why I am writing this lesson. I worked out the below 4 scales for my own use and improvement, but I decided to share them. These scales span 3 octaves, rather than 2, which gives you alot more (almost all) the range of the fretboard, and help you to do buildups to the higher notes.

    For these, I am only giving the ascending (going up), the finger pattern is the same coming back down, as are the frets.



    6: A Natural Minor Extended (3 Octaves)
    e|-----------------------------------------------12-13-15-17-|
    B|-----------------------------------10-12-13-15-------------|
    G|---------------------------9-10-12-------------------------|
    D|-----------------7-9-10-12---------------------------------|
    A|----------7-8-10-------------------------------------------|
    E|-5-7-8-10--------------------------------------------------|
    R R R R
    1 2 3 4 1 2 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


    7: A Major Extended (3 Octaves)
    e|-----------------------------------------------12-14-16-17-|
    B|-----------------------------------10-12-14-15-------------|
    G|---------------------------9-11-13-------------------------|
    D|-----------------7-9-11-12---------------------------------|
    A|----------7-9-11-------------------------------------------|
    E|-5-7-9-10--------------------------------------------------|
    R R R R
    1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


    8: A Minor Pentatonic Extended (3 Octaves)
    e|-------------------------------------12-15-17-|
    B|----------------------------10-13-15----------|
    G|-----------------------9-12-------------------|
    D|-----------------10-12------------------------|
    A|---------7-10-12------------------------------|
    E|--5-8-10--------------------------------------|
    R R R R
    1 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 1 3 1 3 4 1 3 4


    9: A Major Pentatonic Extended (3 Octaves)
    e|---------------------------------12-14-17--|
    B|------------------------10-12-14-----------|
    G|-------------------9-11--------------------|
    D|------------7-9-11-------------------------|
    A|--------7-9--------------------------------|
    E|--5-7-9------------------------------------|
    R R R R
    1 2 4 1 3 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 4
     
  13. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

  14. apurbajd

    apurbajd ~#$&*$@*^$

    Well! u could've better post the link here .......... :cool:
     
  15. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    Thats that and if u want to learn ANYTHING else plz visit


    http://www.ultimate-guitar.com/lessons/

    that all WAS copied from there...

    plzzzzzzzz read that play that MASTER all that...become gr8888 guitarist...the basic theory and all is VERY important...right now most people just know how to play a few songs just by searching the tabs of it and they actually think that they r good guitarists...well composing ur OWN songs are wayyyyy better then doing just covers...

    K c ya all laterz me now temporarlily leaving IGT cuz of my exams and i hope that when i return back i'll c many "guitar gods" here on this lovelyyyyy site known as "indianguitartabs" ;)
     
  16. bjr

    bjr Lady of the Evening

    What on earth are you trying to do? How is listing a bunch of chords going to help other people?


    I'm giving you 24 hours to clean up your act. Edit your posts with a reasonably decent explanation of how to form chords using theory instead of listing every chord you can find so that they can copy off here or else I'll delete these three posts which contain nothing but chords.
     
  17. J.J

    J.J The Guitar God

    listen dude i know that you know only like barre chords and open chords or at the max seventh and diminished chords...BUT one should know as many chords as possible trust me that helps a lot...newayz just betta visit the site and learn it all urself...well if you have the will to that is...
     
  18. bjr

    bjr Lady of the Evening



    I'm sitting here laughing my ass off at you. Do you have any idea what I even said? You're coming here acting all knowledgable and making the stupidest posts possible trying to act superior by insulting my "lack of knowledge" of chords and then challenging my commitment to my music.

    I'll type in what I said in my last post in capslock so you might read it better.



    "YOU DO NOT MUG UP CHORDS. IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO KNOW EVERY CHORD IN THE BOOK. YOU LEARN A BIT OF MUSIC THEORY SO THAT YOU CAN FIGURE OUT PRETTY MUCH EVERY CHORD EXTENSION BEYOND THE MAJORS, MINORS, DOMINANT 7ths, AUGMENTED, DIMINISHED AND TRITONES. LISTING OUT ALL POSSIBLE CHORDS WILL ONLY HARM PEOPLE WHO TRY TO MUG THEM UP. WHAT I NOW WANT YOU TO DO IS EDIT THOSE POSTS THAT YOU MADE INTO AN EXPLANATION ON HOW TO FIGURE OUT THE NOTES OF CHORDS USING A BIT OF THEORY INSTEAD OF LEARNING THEM BY HEART LIKE IDIOTS"

    You've made a bad post. Chord Dictionaries have been posted all over this website for reference and we do not need a list of chords in a thread that discusses the theory that your thread does.

    Stop acting like a 15 year old elitist and get your act together...or I will do it for you.
     
  19. bjr

    bjr Lady of the Evening

    I've deleted the redundant posts from this thread and now it seems to be pretty okay even though it's not his own work and it should be as a rule of this forum says so. I'll leave the thread open for posting any queries on the scales and theory that it contains.
     
  20. alpha1

    alpha1 I BLUES!

    A request

    JJ
    d00d I want to know how to merge Diminished scale into the Phrygian dominant scale while playing and yet remaining (or atleast sounding as if remaining) in the same key.

    Same for augmented scale + harmonic minor.

    Thanx.

    Those two are bits that I still cannot fathom how those players change scales during playing and still manage to sound in key.
     

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