scales + chord progressions in a nutshell

Discussion in 'Guitar Lessons, Tutorials & Tips' started by zing, Feb 22, 2006.

  1. zing

    zing Machine Head

    got fed up of havin 2 look at twenty sites to get all the info i wanted - so i put it all together in one page - got most of it from http://www.zentao.com/guitar and http://guitar.about.com & some of it i extrapolated myself - i hope its useful 2 some of u ppl & helps u 'marry' scales with chords

    ok this requires sum basic knowledge of intervals & good knowledge of the position of notes on the fretboard - all intervals are based on the major scale

    scales
    this helps u 2 compare the feel of each scale - so e.g. u play major & then play it with the flat 3rd n so on.. n see the difference in emotion that it creates
    Code:
    major scale  		1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
    			 w w h w w w h	
    
    melodic minor scale  	1 2 b3 4 5 6 7 8
    harmonic minor scale  	1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7 8
    natural minor scale  	1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 8
    
    major pentatonic scale 	1 2 3 5 6
    minor pentatonic scale 	1 b3 4 5 b7
    blues scale 		1 b3 4 b5 5 b7
    

    modes
    this is good for practicin lead - try out each n settle on a 'sound' that u like - e.g. lydian --> satriani, dorian --> santana, aeolian --> page [stairway 2 heaven] knopler [sultans of swing]
    Code:
    major   
    -----------------------------------------------------------
    Ionian 		1 2 3 4 5 6 7		(major)
    Lydian 		1 2 3 #4 5 6 7
    Mixolydian 	1 2 3 4 5 6 b7
    -----------------------------------------------------------
    minor 
    -----------------------------------------------------------
    Dorian 		1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7
    Phrygian 	1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
    Aeolian 	1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7	(natural minor)
    Locrian 	1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7 
    
    four possible triads (R=Root=1)
    dont just learn chord shapes - this helps u find out how the chords r formed - so play the scale, then play the root, 3rd, 5th as a chord - this really 'marries ur scales + chords'
    Code:
    major		R 3 5 
    minor		R b3 5 
    augmented	R 3 #5 
    diminished	R b3 b5 
    
    7th chords are built by adding a 7th interval to the triads
    good esp if u interested in blues / jazz - usually v stick just 'seventh' meaning dominant 7th but theres more...
    Code:
    Major
    1 3 5 7 Major 7 				C E G B written CMaj7, CM7 
    1 3 5 b7 Dominant 7 				C E G Bb written C7 
    
    Minor
    1 b3 5 7  minor/Major 7 			C Eb G B written Cmin/Maj7, Cm/M7 
    1 b3 5 b7  minor 7 				C Eb G Bb written Cmin7, Cm7 
    
    Diminished 
    1 b3 b5 b7  minor 7b5 or half diminished 7 	C Eb Gb Bb written Cmin7b5, Cm7b5, Cø 
    1 b3 b5 bb7(6)  Diminished 7 			C Eb Gb Bbb(A) written Cdim7, Cº7 
    
    Augmented 
    1 3 #5 7  Augmented 7 				C E G# B written CAug7, C+7, CM7#5 
    

    chord progressions based on major scale
    so u playin lead over sum chords or vice versa... this wud help to find out which notes to play when u have sum chords -- or when playin lead u can find out which chord e.g. C or D or E etc and which type e.g. major or minor etc - example is in C but can transpose to any major key
    Code:
    Degree 	Note 	Triad 		7th Chord 	Name 		Type
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    I 	C 	C E G 		C E G B 	Tonic 		major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    ii 	D 	D F A 		D F A C 	Supertonic 	minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    iii 	E 	E G B 		E G B D 	Mediant 	minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    IV 	F 	F A C 		F A C E 	Subdominant 	major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    V 	G 	G B D 		G B D F 	Dominant 	major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    vi 	A 	A C E 		A C E G 	Submediant 	minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    vii 	B 	B D F 		B D F A 	Leading Tone 	dim
    		1 b3 b5 	1 b3 b5 b7 
    
    chord progressions based on harmonic minor scale
    same as above but for minor scale
    Code:
    Degree 	Note 	Triad 		7th Chord 	Name 		Type
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    i 	C 	C Eb G 		C Eb G B 	Tonic 		minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    ii 	D 	D F Ab 		D F Ab C 	Supertonic 	dim
    		1 b3 b5 	1 b3 b5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    III 	Eb	Eb G B 		Eb G B D 	Mediant 	         aug
    		1 3 #5 		1 3 [COLOR="Red"]#[/COLOR]5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    iv 	F 	F Ab C 		F Ab C E 	Subdominant 	minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    V 	G 	G B D 		G B D F 	Dominant 	         major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    VI* 	Ab 	Ab C E[COLOR="Red"]b[/COLOR] 		Ab C E[COLOR="Red"]b[/COLOR] G 	Submediant 	major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    vii** 	B 	B D F 		B D F A 	Leading Tone 	dim
    		1 b3 b5 	1 b3 b5 b7  
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    
    [B]* for melodic minor [/B]
    [COLOR="Blue"]ii 	D 	D F A 		D F A C 		Supertonic 	minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 b7 
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    IV	F 	F A C 		F A C E 		Subdominant 	major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 7 
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[/COLOR]
    vi 	A 	A C E[COLOR="Red"]b[/COLOR] 		A C E[COLOR="red"]b[/COLOR] G 	Submediant 	[COLOR="red"]dim[/COLOR]
    		1 b3 [COLOR="red"]b[/COLOR]5 		1 b3 [COLOR="red"]b[/COLOR]5 b7 
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    [B]** for natural/pentatonic minor[/B]
    [COLOR="Blue"]III 	Eb	Eb G Bb 		Eb G Bb D 	Mediant 		major
    		1 3 5 		1 3 5 b7 
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    v 	G 	G Bb D 		G Bb D F 		Dominant 	minor
    		1 b3 5 		1 b3 5 b7 
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[/COLOR]
    [COLOR="Red"]VII[/COLOR] 	Bb 	Bb D F 		B[COLOR="red"]b[/COLOR] D F A 	Leading Tone 	[COLOR="red"]major[/COLOR]
    		1 3 b5 		1 3 b5 b7  
    --------------------------------------------------------------------
    circle of fifths
    useful for modulation - switching from one key to another - the keys are in increasing order of sharps - so if u shift from C --> G scale, there's a difference of only one sharp

    [a silly mnemonic 2 help remember -- Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle]
    Code:
    C G D A E B F#/Gb Db Ab Eb Bb F C
    

    hope this helps.... ask away if have questions - cant promise that i know the answer but wil try - also corrections/suggestions for improvement r welcome

    cheers
     
  2. bjr

    bjr Lady of the Evening

    Could you give a really short explanation as to what you've posted for the absolute n00bs? "Marrying scales with chords" might not make a lot of sense to some people....just give the basic objectives of what you've posted.
     
  3. Seelan

    Seelan Soldier Of Fortune

    I seriously have no idea what the above is about . I don't understand the term used . But I know of a scale which I believe is to be 'A Pentatonic' (not sure of spelling) scale . Is it correct ?

    Code:
    ------------------------------------------------10--12---
    -----------------------------------8---10---12-----------
    ----------------------------7---9------------------------
    ------------------5--7---9-------------------------------
    ----------5---7------------------------------------------
    ---5---7-------------------------------------------------
    
    So is this the 'A Pentatonic' Scale ? Or did I miss some notes ?
     
  4. zing

    zing Machine Head

    @ bjr - point taken - edited original post
    @ seelan - hope its bit more reader friendly now :)
     
  5. slash_i_m

    slash_i_m Laid to Rest

    great work zing nice one very informative to ppl who understand it.:nw:
     
  6. dennis

    dennis The Bhangra King

    loved it, im saving this stuff...very helpful
     
  7. zing

    zing Machine Head

    hi seelan
    Code:
    major pentatonic scale 	1 2 3 5 6
    so if u want A major pentatonic the notes r:

    1 = A obviously

    to get the other notes (2, 3, 5, 6) use the whole/half step in major scale as reference

    Code:
    major scale  		1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
    			 w w h w w w h	
    2 = B --- a whole step from A
    3 = C# -- a whole step from B
    5 = E -- a whole + half step from C#
    6 = F# -- a whole step from E

    so A major pentatonic is A B C# E F#

    now if we substitute the notes instead of the fret number in your tab

    Code:
    ------------------------------------------------ D --E ---
    -----------------------------------G---A ---B -----------
    ----------------------------D---E------------------------
    ------------------G--A---B-------------------------------
    ----------D---E------------------------------------------
    ---A---B-------------------------------------------------
    so it aint the A major pentatonic

    now if u try the same with the A minor pentatonic (1 b3 4 5 b7) u'll c it fits somewhat better but not exactly
     
  8. bjr

    bjr Lady of the Evening

    Perfect. Thanks a lot, mate. Well done.
     
  9. jobic

    jobic New Member


    can u pls explain the strumming patern of these or the beats 1x2x3...
     
  10. mr singh

    mr singh New Member

    zing u legend, this is so incredibly concisely written, amazing :)... reps 4 u 4 sure
     
  11. zing

    zing Machine Head

    hey bud this has nuthin 2 do with strumming pattern -- its just abt what notes or chords to play -- how u play it [rhythm, beats, emphasis etc] depends totaly on what 'mood' u wanna create..
    hth
     
  12. zing

    zing Machine Head

    @slash, dennis, bjr, mr singh -- ppl im flattered by ur coments tho most of it i just picked up frm here n there - thnx all - glad u found it useful
     
  13. zing

    zing Machine Head

    as sum ppl r interested in this, i hav updated it
    - completed the comparison between harmonic & natural/melodic minors [in BLUE]
    - added circle of fifths
    also corrected sum typos [in RED]
     
    shantanukr likes this.
  14. nik_bokacheley

    nik_bokacheley :help: I'm a mad :sadbye:

    Saved it .. Thanks a lot !! Nice of you to put so many good things together.

    REPing you..

    nIK! :)
     
  15. shantanukr

    shantanukr yEh DiL mAanGe m0rE

    Good One Yaar ... Saved it .. i will read it and will post the feedback.

    :) REPS to U ....
     
  16. vini

    vini Repeat Offender

    very good work!!!..do u think a newbie would be able to decipher it? :) make it like "scales for dummies" or sumthing like that..u've started from alomst med level...but anyways thanx a lot for sharing!!
     
  17. fat_kax

    fat_kax Kickin Ass Since 1989 !

  18. zing

    zing Machine Head

  19. SimonSuhas

    SimonSuhas New Member

    Hi Zing, the info is great will try it out.
     
  20. magicalaks

    magicalaks New Member

    thank you..................
     

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