In This Chapter The families of chords The relative minor Relating to the scale Formation of more complex chords Chord clock Most guitar players want to be able to play chords to accompany their singing or to play in a band. Learning different chords can give you a wider variety of accompanying techniques, and also can expand your capabilities. Chord Families It is very useful the basics of chord constructions and how chords relate to each other. The most obvious case is the G7, which resolves naturally to the C chord, but in addition you will notice that many songs in the key of C use the F, Am, and Dm chords, all of which belong in the C chord family. The best way to understand this is to look at the notes of the C major scale. C D E F G A B C Major chords are made from the first, third, and fifth steps of the scale. C D E F G A B C Code: 1. G----0 D----2 A----3 2. E----0 B----1 G----0 D----- A----3 E----- 1. Here isthe major chord built on the first note of the scale, known as the tonic. The three important notes are the C,E and G. 2. The second chord shown above is a familiar guitar version of the chord with more notes, but each of them is still a C,E, or G. When the notes are repeated, as in the case above where there are 2 Cs, the C is said to be doubled. In making bigger chords, the first and fifth may be freely doubled. Doubling the third doesn't sound as good. A chord can be made with the fifth, shown in Tab A. Code: Tab A B----1 G----- D----2 A----3 The chord still has some flavor of being a C chord. However if you leave out the third, the character is lost and the chord sounds hollow , as shown in Tab B. Code: Tab B B----1 G----0 D----- A----3 Related Chords The most common related chords are those built on the fourth and fifth notes on the scale. http://img415.imageshack.us/img415/2859/relatedchords1dp6.jpg For simplicity, these chords are often referred to just byu their number-usually with Roman Numerals such as I, IV, and V. The V Chord is G major in this case, and the G7 is formed by adding the seventh note above the G. http://img181.imageshack.us/img181/3930/relatedchords2gg9.jpg Here, (a) shows the necessary components of the G chord : G, B, and D. The seventh note above G is F, and adding this as in (b) makes a familiar G7. The V Chord is known as the dominant, and when the seventh is added it is known as the dominant seventh. The IV chord, F in this case, is also known as the subdominant. There are hundreds of songs that only use the I, IV, and V chords, and understanding this makes it easy to change key. For instance, if you are in the key of C and the song feels too low for your voice, you can try D, a tone higher. The V Chord in D, counting up in scale is A. A7 will become dominant seventh. The fourth note of D scale is G, so G will be the Iv chord or subdominant. So everywhere you had C as I chord, you may substitute a D chord, and similarly you may replace the G7 chords with A7s and the Fs with Gs. The Relative Minor The other close relative is the chord built on the sixth note of the scale. Looking back to the C scale, you will see that this is the A, and that building up the three notes in the same way gives us an A minor chord : Code: (a) E----0 B----1 G----2 (b) E----0 B----1 G----2 D----- A----0 Here (a) shows the essential notes, and (b) a common guitar version with the A doubled. Other useful chords The Diminished Seventh Diminished chords are easy to form : simply build up three minor thirds (one and a half tones) on top of any note to form its diminished seventh. There are really only three distinct diminished chords, because all others share the same notes. http://img99.imageshack.us/img99/9365/relatedchords3up7.jpg The upper staff shows the components of the C diminished seventh. Below is a useful movable diminished form. The D# diminished contains the same notes as the C. Will be back with more of this guyz..hope ya like this post on chord theory. REPS, suggestions, critisicms are all welcome with open heart.