india's growth blow by blow account.

Discussion in 'The ChitChat Lounge' started by jamhead, Dec 10, 2005.

  1. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    this is a fantastic post by another person in another forum.

    i read it and liked it so much that i felt i'd shaere it with you.

    light_of_ernedi, i specially want you to read it .

    any person who's about 30+ should be able to connect to this one soon.

    My earliest memory of India was from the mid 1950s. I used to live in Patna the capital of the Eastern Indian State of Bihar. It was and is still one of the poorest parts of India. It was the initial years of our Republic. The Indian market was only partially closed to the foreign companies. Still many ordinary consumer products used to come from England. These included such ordinary consumer items of daily use.
    2. On the streets we could see the big US made cars like Dodge, Buick, Studebaker etc. The small car scene was mostly dominated by British made cars like Morris, Hillman, Standard Vanguard and Austin. India had started licensed production of the Morris Oxford under the brand name of Hindustan 14 from 1950 onwards at the Hindustan Motor Works, Utter Para in West Bengal. The production line was changed to Landmaster in 1955 and Ambassador in 1958.Incidentally, the Ambassador car is still produced but it has undergone much up gradation and now is even produced with bullet proof body.
    3. The import of consumer products and luxury items like cars etc were gradually stopped by the later part of the 1950s. However, a limited number of trucks were allowed importation for a few more years.
    4. At that time the train coaches were made of wooden bodies and the engines were all steam locomotives. Refrigerators and Air conditioners were very few and whatever was available was imported from Europe. They were very expensive and only very few persons possessed these items. The radio set was manufactured in India with imported components. So it was also an expensive item and very few persons possessed them. However, with the arrival of the transistor radio in the market in the 1960s, there was rapid growth of this means of communication as the sets were inexpensive. Despite the arrival of the transistor radio, the newspaper and other items of the print media continued to be the main source of information for the masses.
    5. Intercity transport was either by means of rail transport or by means of motor transport. The average speed of the mail or express train used to be 40 mph and the maximum permissible speed used to be 55 mph. The steam engine was much less powerful and could pull only 9 to 11 coaches depending upon the gradient of the route. The signaling used to be by means of mechanical leavers and pulleys using wires. The signal light used to be lanterns.
    6. The availability of electricity was mostly confined to the big cities and towns and power generation was by means of captive power stations burning coal. There were neither super thermal power stations nor the national and regional grids.
    7. Air Service in India had been nationalized in 1953, so in my younger days it was only the Indian Airlines which used to operate a handful of stations by using the small DC-3 aircrafts having an average cruising speed of 150 miles per hour. They were not pressurized and carried 27 passengers. For flying from Kolkata to Delhi it had to make at least 2 refueling stops en route and it took almost 8 hours to cover the distance. There were also four DC-4 Sky master aircrafts which were used to connect the four metros.
    The non stop flight from Kolkata to Delhi by the Sky master used to take 5 hours.
    8. The first modern aircraft to arrive in the Indian Civil fleet was the VICKERS VISCOUNT which carried 44 passengers in a pressurized cabin and had a cruising speed on 350 mph. They were very impressive looking aircraft powered by 4 Rolls Royse Dart turbo prop engines. However, in the initial years very few cities were connected by this aircraft as we did not had suitable airfields in all places. These aircrafts were followed by the acquisition of F-27 Fokker Friendship and the Caravel aircrafts. In later years these were followed by the acquisition of the HS 748 Avro (some were manufactured later by HAL), Airbus A-300, Boeing 737 and finally by the Airbus A-320.
    9. However, in places like Patna, the airfield was so small and weak that the Dakota could be replaced by the F-27 only in 1964, then also it had to operate with a much reduced load. It took several years to upgrade the runway so that the aircraft could land and take off with full load of 40 passengers.
    10. In those days there were very few trains between Patna and Delhi, which included the Toofan Express, Delhi Express, Junta Express and the Upper India Express. As the trains used to travel at a much slower speed, it used to take almost 24 hours to travel between Patna and Delhi. The distance between Patna and Kolkata (555 Km) used to be covered in 10 to 12 hours.
    11. Food grains, particularly wheat, rice, sugar etc and kerosene oil were used to be supplied to the public only through the ration shops against the permits /ration cards given to the citizens. The same was the case with other essentials of life including baby food, edible oil and similar items of consumer consumption. For special occasions like marriages and festivals special permits were issued so that citizens could have more than their normal quota of supplies.
    12. India was not self sufficient in food and neither it had sufficient money to purchase the essentials from the open world market. Therefore, it had to accept food aid from USA, Canada and Australia.
    13. The Indian political leaders of the time were advocates of world peace and world disarmament. Consequently, not much resource was allocated for the modernization and proper maintenance of the armed forces. India was seen a great champion of world peace and disarmament. It advocated a world free of power blocks and started the non aligned movement. It took lead in the movement for decolonization of the Afro-Asian countries. It promoted peace and peaceful co existence with all countries.
    14. India was in for a rude shock when in 1962 Chinese forces attacked India along the northern borders. The Indian Armed forces were totally unprepared and there was no logistic support along the border as not many maps and roads existed on our side of the border. The mighty Indian army was defeated and the Chinese forces intruded into Indian Territory both in the Eastern and Western Sectors of the border. The United States and the other Western Powers came to the aid of India and after 2o days of fighting the Chinese halted and withdrew from much of the Indian Territory they had occupied. In the previous 200 years of its history the Indian Armed forces had a glorious record. It was on the victorious side in both the First and the Second World War. The humiliation of the mighty Indian Armed Forces was a matter of great national shame and disgrace.
    15. Out of the ashes of defeat and disgrace of 1962, the Indian political leaders got the realization of the need to have a powerful armed force as the capacity to defend itself is one of the essentials of a successful nation. Therefore, the planning of the nation was re oriented to ensure that adequate measures are taken to organize proper defense of the nation’s borders. The United States and Britain provided India with arms and equipments and the nation’s armed forces were modernized. Roads were constructed along the border areas and the size of the armed forces was also increased.
    16. The 1962 disaster was a blessing in disguise. It resulted in the total reshaping of the foreign and defense policy of India. Several steps were taken immediately to modernize the armed forces and to increase its striking power. India started looking at the world from a different angle and continuously kept track of the changing geo-political situation in the world.
    17. Since the mid 1950s, the Indian political leaders, particularly its first Prime Minister Mr. Jawaharlal Nehru, 1947-64 had embarked on a planned economic development program for the nation. It envisaged rapid industrialization of the country along with building of a strong agricultural base to make the country self sufficient in production of industrial goods, consumer products and food grain. India tries to achieve this target by reserving the vital sectors of the economy for the public sector while retaining a mixed economic system. Thus, it was ensured that the commanding heights of the Indian economy were to be controlled by the State. The private sector was allowed to operate but under the control of the State and certain sectors of the industry was reserved for the small scale sector.
    18. India is predominantly an agricultural country. So it was essential to bring in land reforms to ensure the equitable distribution of land among the people engaged in agriculture. In 1953, the old Zamindari system under which landownership was mostly confined to the big land owners was mostly confined to few individuals was abolished. A land ceiling act was passed and the surplus land so available was distributed amongst the landless peasants. The new owners of land were given incentives to improve the agricultural output. The state also purchased their produce at a fixed price to ensure that they get a decent return from their land. At the same time, the State also initiated action to modernize the agricultural system and research for better variety o f agricultural inputs was intensified. This resulted in the development of the high yielding variety of seeds that increased the food grain production of the country.
  2. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    19. During the period 1955-1990 the economic development of India was done in a planned manner under the five year plans. The experts in the Planning Commission of India drew up the priorities of development for each of the five year periods and the available resources were utilized as per this plan for executing the development plans. The main priority areas included heavy industry, power, irrigation projects and research in agriculture. Downstream industries were left with the private sector. Production of some of the ordinary items including consumer products was kept reserved for the small scale sector. The resource mobilization was done through a series of harsh economic measures. All non essential imports were banned. Import of certain items and commodities were made the exclusive preserve of the public sector corporations. The private sector was allowed to function but under strict control of the state through license, control and quota system.
    20. As part of resource mobilization efforts, the Government of India sought and got both donation and aid from various international agencies and financial institutions. India being one of the poorest nations of the world was given aid and assistance by many countries including the United States and the major countries of the West.
    21. Along with industrialization and agricultural development steps were also taken to arrange human resource development. Several institutions were set up which included the five Indian Institute of Technology to impart specialized training to the students so that necessary talent is available within the country to run the new industrial and business establishments. Several vocational training centers were also set up to provide skilled manpower necessary for running the new industries from the shop level.
    22. To tackle the power needs of the nation, it was decided to tap all the available resources. This included harnessing the vast hydro power resources as well as thermal and nuclear power. As India has enormous power coal reserve, several super thermal power plants were set up in different parts of the country. Similarly, a number of giant hydro power projects were also set up in different parts of the country. These included the Bakhra Nangal Project and the Damoder Valley Corporation. A modest start was also made in the early 60s with the help of Canada to set up an atomic reactor and an atomic power plant. This was followed by the setting up of a number of atomic power plants in the country. The nation was linked through a national power grid so that surplus power from one part of the country could be easily transmitted to any other part of the country.
    23. The enormous task of nation building in the formative years of our republican history was full of difficulties. We had to face a number of difficult situations and obstacles in our march towards building up a modern nation. Some of the difficulties were natural and some were due to political reasons. The almost annual flooding of some parts of the country and almost annual drought and famine in other part of the country due to inadequate rain took a heavy toll of our resources. Similarly, in the era of cold war when the world was divided into two distinct camps, India decided to remain non-aligned and followed a somewhat independent foreign policy.
    24. India’s championing the cause of the non-aligned world and giving a lead in de-colonization of Afro-Asian countries was often disliked by the Western Powers. This resulted in the reluctance of some of the Western Governments to part with the latest technology or to provide the latest machinery for India’s nation building efforts. The stand taken by India during the 1956 Suez Crisis was not taken kindly by most of the Western Governments of the time.
    25. The Indian policymakers in the post independent era, all English educated and conservative by outlook were soon forced to look towards the Soviet Union for technological assistance for fulfilling its dream of rapid industrialization. Gradually, India drifted towards the USSR and the Eastern Block for technical assistance and technology transfer.
    26. In the years immediately after India gained independence in 1947, the West and the United States found that it would be in their geo-political advantage to cultivate the newly formed country of Pakistan. The primary aim of this policy was to check the possible east wards advance of the Soviets through Afghanistan towards the Indian Ocean. In the process, the Western Powers and the United States entered into military alliance with Pakistan. They provided substantial military and financial aid to Pakistan. It was gradually to be seen as an unfriendly act by the Indian policy makers and thus India’s relationship with USA and to some extent with UK cooled down.
    27. At the time of partition of British India into India and Pakistan, the Princely ruler of Jammu and Kashmir had acceded his state into the Indian Union. This was not accepted by Pakistan, as it felt that since the majority of the population of the state is Muslims, it should join Pakistan rather than India. However, when this did not happen Pakistan dispatched some tribal elements and parts of its army some in civilian dress to occupy Kashmir which resulted in the first Indo-Pak war of 1948. The United Nations intervened and a ceasefire came into force.
    28. In 1965 Pakistan sent in infiltrators into Kashmir which resulted in the Indo-Pak war of 1965. By that time, due to the Chinese aggression of 1962, the Indian Armed Forces were under modernization and could give a fitting reply to the Pakistani forces. It not only repulsed the Pakistani attack but the Indian forces crossed into Pakistan and occupied considerable amount of Pakistan territory. Ultimately, again a ceasefire was enforced and under mediation efforts of USSR peace between the two countries was restored.
    29. During the period 1947 till 1965, although India’s relationship with the West and the United States saw many ups and downs, the 1965 war brought a major change in India’s thinking towards the West and the USA. In Pakistan’s attack on India it made full use of the weapons that it had received from the USA for its protection against the USSR. The Western Powers did not intervene to prevent Pakistan from doing so and this resulted in India facing substantial battlefield losses. However, it could withstand the Pakistani attack due to its vast manpower and resources.
    30. Many of the Western Governments sided with Pakistan and cut off all military and civilian aid to India. This resulted in great hardship in India’s on going process of nation building as there was severe resource crunch.
    31. A realization came in the mind of the Indian policy makers that the West cannot be relied upon. India took massive steps to be self sufficient in the production of a number of military products as well as in the manufacturing of essential consumer products. In this effort it took active help and assistance of the USSR and the Eastern Block. Even at the instigation of the Western Powers Iran and other Middle Eastern countries threatened to cut off the supply of petroleum products.
    32. At this point it is necessary to state that the attitude of the Western Powers took a rather U turn. It may be recalled that in 1962 during the Chinese Aggression, the entire West and the United States came forward to help India. Substantial amount of arms were airlifted by the US Army for the Indian Forces and USA also provided a radar system along India’s northern border. All this good will evaporated after the 1965 Indo-Pak war.
    33. By these actions the Western Powers compelled India to become closer to the USSR. Since the West was reluctant to provide modern arms and other equipment to India, the USSR came forward to assist India in the modernization of its armed forces.
    34. Some of the vital civilian development projects particularly in the power sector came to a grinding halt due to the economic sanction imposed by the West. India had to turn to the USSR and other eastern block countries for the advance equipment required for completion of these projects.
    35. While these adjustments were going on in India’s orientation in its relationship with the two world powers of that time, another development took place in its neighborhood, which had a profound impact on India’s future history.
    36. In 1970, the Awami League a predominantly East Pakistan political party won the majority of seats in the Pakistan general election. It meant that power was to pass on from the political leaders of West Pakistan to the political leaders of East Pakistan. This was not acceptable to the Urdu speaking political leaders of the Western part of Pakistan and it resulted in the civil unrest in East Pakistan which ultimately led to the declaration of martial law and a military crack down on the Bengali population of the Eastern part of Pakistan. It resulted in the influx of several million Bengali speaking people from East Pakistan into neighboring states of India, who fled their own country to save themselves from the atrocities of the Pakistan Army on the civilian population of East Pakistan. The influx of such a huge number of refugees was a major economic burden on India.
  3. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    37. India repeatedly pleaded with the West to use their good offices to resolve the crisis in Pakistan, so that the millions of displaced persons could return home. The western Powers particularly the United States was in no mood to put pressure on their close ally Pakistan. It resulted in the further intensification of the civil war in East Pakistan.
    38. Ultimately, India went in assistance of the freedom fighters of East Pakistan which resulted in the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971. It lasted for thirteen days and the Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the Indian Army on 16th Dec 1971.This led to the creation of the new nation of Bangladesh. However, another result of this development was that just before the war broke out India and USSR entered into a 20 year treaty of friendship and co-operation. Although, this was not a military alliance, it created a very close relationship between India and the USSR, which lasted till the breakup of the USSR.
    39. Despite maintaining close military and to some extent political ties with the USSR, the remarkable achievement of the Indian policy makers was that India remained a mixed economy with the private sector remaining one of the major players in its economy. A few socialist measures were adopted but the capitalist society of India remained intact.
    40. During the period 1950 to 1990 several general elections were held and new governments were formed both at the Centre and the States. The Indian national Congress remained in power at the Centre till 1977. However, in some of the States the opposition coalitions came to power for brief spells. However, in 1975 the than Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi had imposed a State of Emergency and suspended the fundamental rights of the citizens. She also imprisoned all the opposition leaders. All this was done by her to silence the demand for her resignation consequent upon her election to Parliament being set aside by the Court on the ground of indulging in corrupt practice. These anti democratic measures were not to the liking of the masses. Therefore, in 1977 when she ordered the general election, the Congress Party was voted out of power at the Centre. The first non-congress coalition Government headed by Mr. Morarji Desai assumed office. This was the first major experiment of coalition in the country; it lasted till 1980 when the Government fell due to ever increasing differences between the coalition partners.
    41. The outcome of the election results in 1977 and in 1980 lead to rest all doubts about the maturity of the Indian democracy as used to be voiced by the Western media and the experts from time to time. The outcome clearly showed the maturity of the Indian democracy and the working of the democratic institutions and the machinery of holding the elections.
    42. While these political and military developments were taking place, Indian economy’s march towards progress maintained its pace. The same was the case with human resource development. India entered the nuclear age when in 1974, it conducted an underground nuclear test for mastering the technology for peaceful use of nuclear energy. At the same time India developed its own satellite and developed its launch vehicle. The human resource development measures also yielded results and a huge army of trained manpower became available by the later part of 1980s to handle the Indian industrial sector.
    43. Thus in 1991 when the time came for India to open up its economy to the world, it was ready in all aspects to take on the world and join in the new global economic order. Since the start of the economic reforms process in 1991, several readjustments have been made from time to time to keep pace with the changing global scenario. The latest of which has come after the 9/11 attack on USA.
    44. The attack on USA by the Islamic fundamentalists has changed the world for ever. The USA is no longer the same USA. Since the late 1980s a low intensity conflict is continuously going on in Jammu and Kashmir. The Islamic terrorist actively supported by Pakistan had been carrying out attacks on civilian targets. More than 50000 lives of civilians has been lost in this low intensity conflict. A number of confidence building measures were taken by India and the than Prime Minister Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee went to Pakistan for talks. This was followed by armed intrusion by Pakistan in the Kargil sector of Jammu and Kashmir. India had to resort to military action to evict the intruders. This was followed by the overthrow of the civilian government of Pakistan. The military ruler Gen Parvez Musharaf came over to India and started a peace move. However, it again broke down but has been re started and is presently progressing.
    45. The constant friction between India and Pakistan has proved to be very costly to both the nations. Enormous amount of resources of both the countries are used for continuously upgrading and maintaining the military machinery of both the nations.
    46. Since liberalization of the economy, India has attracted Foreign Direct Investment in several sectors. There has been enormous growth in the telecom sector. At present we have about 20 million mobile phones and on an average 2.5 million mobile phones are being added every month.
    47. Similarly, in the IT sector and Internet related industry a rapid progress has been made. India’s growing presence in the world IT market has already become a cause of concern in certain countries of the West. The outsourcing of work to India has also become a political issue even in the USA and both the Presidential candidates are trying to address the issue in their campaign speeches.
    48. Needless to mention that Indians have been able not only to achieve self sufficiency in several sectors but have also started exporting such ideas, services and equipment to various countries in the world. However, even today about 23% of the Indians live below the poverty line and can be termed as the excessively poor people.
    49. We have still a long way to go. We require massive investment in several sectors, particularly those which are aimed at poverty elimination both in the rural and urban sector. While in the urban sector, it is necessary to improve the condition of the slum dwellers. Although a number of steps have been taken we are still to go a long way in improving the conditions of the slums and provide basic amenities to these poor people.
    50. However, we cannot ignore the achievements that we Indians have made since we gained independence in 1947. Today, India is the fourth largest economy on Purchasing Power Parity basis. Since, 2001 India has a current account surplus which doubled to $8.7billion in 2003-04 from $4.1 in 02-03. Its forex reserve was about $122.2 billion (12th Nov 04). India's GDP stood at @576 million as of 2003 and India has been having GDP growth rate of 5-6 % since 1990 reaching a record 10.4% in the last quarter of 2003. The GDP growth rate in FY 2003-04 was 8.2%.
    51. At present, the Indian middle class is 300 million strong with a high rate of consumption and high purchase power. India offers a vibrant market with 54% of the population below the age of 25 years of age. These young people work harder, earn more, spend more and demand more from the market, making India a dynamic consumer society.
    52. From an agro based economy, India has emerged as a service oriented economy and today more than 75% of India's exports are of manufactured items. Since July 2003, India has become a net creditor to IMF, after remaining a borrower for several decades since independence. Indian companies have acquired 120 foreign firms during the period 2001-03 worth $1.6 billion. In 2003, Indian companies won 110 contracts worth about $1100 million. All these are result of fundamental and irreversible changes in Govt. policies since 1990 towards globalization of Indian economy and in the mindset of the Indians in general.
    53. Commenting on India's tremendous economic growth in the last few years, The Far Eastern Economic Review of 15th April, 2004 stated that the eye popping 10.4%GDP growth in the last quarter of 2003 has excited hopes that India will become the next China, but expectations need to climb even further.
  4. shsnawada

    shsnawada Cyborgs & Pasta

    It reflects the LONG, tedious route very well. :beer: Please make space in your inbox (for one pm atleast).
  5. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    okies done.
  6. shsnawada

    shsnawada Cyborgs & Pasta

    Whats always been confusing me is the stand that india took on the cold war. Some say that they were on the side of the USSR and thats why were getting these new missles from Russia. Some say that we were strictly non aligned. Which one is it? :confused:
  7. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

  8. shsnawada

    shsnawada Cyborgs & Pasta

    They used to be. (this is history, remember). I'm surrounded by them almost everyday. (i'm not genetically related to any of those though)
    :mad: :mad:
  9. apurbajd

    apurbajd ~#$&*$@*^$

    Couldnt agree more..............

    NAM reflects the confused Indain diplomacy I guess. And India could never decide which side it should be on ...................... but stuck in the middle India didnt loose ... in fact we gained .............. like u said .............. it helped us keep both da super powers at arms length ............
  10. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    no your post reflects your confusion.

    and NAM shows just how much we managed to confuse both superpowers while all the time milking them of economic freebies.

    india had decided right from he begining as to which side she'd be on - neither.
    cos joining either bandwagon would have been very dangerous for us.

    we remain amongst the very few major nations who had god diplomatic as well as trade relations with both superpowers right throughout the cold war.

    repeat, indian diplomats are kickass.
  11. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    they still are kick ass.

    we just conned everyone in the iran-nuclear reactor as well as gas pipeline issue.
  12. shsnawada

    shsnawada Cyborgs & Pasta

    A lot of them who i know.....well i dont think that you would want to know.
  13. can_i_play

    can_i_play New Member

    There was one good article on indian diplomacy in "Swaninomics " in TOI...the only good part in that pathetic newspaper.Authors views looks quiet a bit genuine in that article.

    Indian diplomacy is like not interfering with anyones mess....exception being Sri Lanka ..
    On the other hands it is also dependent on others to resolve its own...exception being the bangaldesh issues for which india has a bit upper hand...

    Our diplomats wont ever risk the relations with U.S for the small bits and pieces that they are offering as a bribe it seems to keep mum.....for example didn't went openly against U.S. when they attached Vietnam or Iraq..they just said we are away from this.....
  14. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    so you know the risks of cozying up with superpowers ??
  15. can_i_play

    can_i_play New Member

    I am not saying india to try hands against them but..should express urself if they are wrong....or atleast not depend on others to resolve its own matters...
  16. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    its good that you are not one of our diplomats.
  17. Jamhead

    Even though I am Pakistani born I nevertherless admire and am indeed proud of what India has managed to achieve as I consider myself still to be part of the Indian family.

    Wish I could say the same for Pakistan but looks like until they extricate itself from US dependance (which the US wants) they will never get any where.

    I am sure once India becomes a superpower (economically and militarily) it will start flexing its muscle. And who would blame them, after such a long history of being exploited.

    One thing that is intriguing me though is the recent close ties India is establishing with Israel. This I think would be a big mistake as Isreal has its own agenda and will use India as it does the US to do its dirty work.

    Whats your or any one elses take on this?
  18. jamhead

    jamhead Unknown Legend

    i hope india never becomes a bully like usa though i am sure in 50 years we will be the biggest economy in the world or thereabouts.

    india and israel (ie. the yehudis... which comes for jehudah, from where the name judas comes, so far i know) go back a long way. a very long way.

    india is the only country in the world where the jews were never perscuted. you can confirm this from the ADL or the local israeli embassy if there is one.

    we have similar geo-pol interests, similar threats and most importantly we have complementary economies.

    and india is not establishING close ties with israel, india has always HAD VERY close ties with israel, and hindus with jews.
  19. shsnawada

    shsnawada Cyborgs & Pasta

    India has always been a country that looks more inwards. So most probably you dont have to worry about that. Atleast, i hope so :beer: As far as i've seen india only looks at countries which are of immediate and direct threat. So, its not like the US.
  20. Read up on Zionism

    It is all very well to state that India is the only country in the world that has never persecuted the Jews.
    But perhaps you should look deeper into why that is so.
    What actions committed by the Jews caused them to be disliked and then persecuted so universally.

    I have been studiying thier history for over 30 years and the same reasons keep coming up.

    Everyone knows Israel has its own agenda and will ride off any country's back to arrive at its goal. Just reading 'The Protocols of the Elders of Zion' will amaze you on thier achievement.

    I am sure you know the game plan and as you have .. er indicated are in agreement with it but you are mistaken in your belief that India will be the one who will be riding.

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