Guidance needed on guitar scales and chords

Discussion in 'Beginner's Q&A Forum' started by HimalaYans, Jan 10, 2005.

  1. HimalaYans

    HimalaYans New Member

    I understand 002220 (Amaj) 0 for open and 2 for press on 2nd fret and play.
    - But Please clarify me "x0x221" What does "x" means for?
    - Another one "#" what does this symbl indicates?
    Like A B C# D E F# G# A B C# D
    1 2 3 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11. I couldnot understand this? Can any 1 clarify me. I don't know notation and want to learn.

    I am also confused on how the following is undestood?
    major [A]: 1 3 5 A C# E
    minor [Am]: 1 3b 5 A C E
    seventh [A7]: 1 3 5 7b A C# E G
    minor seventh [Am7]: 1 3b 5 7b A C E G
    major seventh [Amaj7 or AM7]: 1 3 5 7 A C# E G#
    sixth [A6]: 1 3 5 6 A C# E F#
    minor sixth [Am6]: 1 3b 5 6 A C E F#
    augmented [A+]: 1 3 5# A C# E# (A C# F)
    augmented 7th [A7+]: 1 3 5# 7b A C# E# G
    diminished [Adim]: 1 3b 5b A C Eb
    diminished 7th [Adim7 or Ao]: 1 3b 5b 7bb A C Eb Gb
    1 3b 5b 6 A C Eb Gb
    seventh (flatted fifth) A7(5b): 1 3 5b 7b A C# Eb G
    minor 7th (flatted 5th) A7(5b): 1 3b 5b 7b A C Eb G
    ninth [A9]: 1 3 5 7b 9 A C# E G B
    minor ninth [Am9]: 1 3b 5 7b 9 A C E G B
    major ninth [Amaj9 or AM9]: 1 3 5 7 9 A C# E G# B
    eleventh [A11]: 1 3 5 7b 9 11 A C# E G B D
    diminished 9th: 1 3 5 7b 9b A C# E G Bb
    added ninth [A(9) or A(2)]: 1 3 5 9 A C# E B (A B C# E)
    added fourth [A(4) or A(11)]: 1 3 5 11 A C# E D
    suspended [Asus or Asus4]: 1 4 5 A D E
    suspended 9th [Asus9 or Asus2]: 1 2 5 A B E (A E B)
    7th suspended 4th [A7sus or A7sus4]: 1 4 5 7b A D E G
    7th suspended 9th [A7sus2 or A7sus9]: 1 2 5 7b A B E G
    fifth [A5 or A(no 3rd)]: 1 5 A E

    Please help me how can I distinguuise the Major, Minor, Augmented, Suspense, Diminished, Power chords etc.
    UR HELP IS highly essential please.

  2. death_metal_fan

    death_metal_fan oh goody, it's a woody!

    x means mute the string. That is touch the string (but not hard enough to depress it) and play it so that you get a dead (muted) sound.
  3. d_ist_urb_ed

    d_ist_urb_ed Genuflect b*tches!

    Yeah, x means to mute the string lightly. # means a sharp note. F# is f sharp note. Regarding the other queries, wait for an experienced person say jayswami to reply:)
  4. rabi_sultan

    rabi_sultan <Bulla Ki Jana>

    it will take a bit of time to explain the major/minors/suspended etc but i'll give it a try but before i go any further if there are mistakes in here then please blow it the advice to pieces :)

    Firstly the theory revolves around a musical scale. lets take C major the notes in this are C D E F G A B

    the scale theory says that to form chords that sound correct to the ear they must be formed from the notes of this scale. This means that any chord that contains notes that do not belong to this scale shouldn't be played (ie. C# D# F# G# A#) as they will not sound correct (as you get more experienced in music you will realise that this is not true but for the sake of simplicity lets assume for the moment this is true)

    now before we go onto explaining how to form chords lets give these notes names and numbers so that we can refer to them. Thus for C major scale the names/numbers are:
    [font=courier new]
    note number name
    C    I      tonic
    D    II     supertonic - as in 'super' meaning above the tonic (I)
    E    III    mediant - as in half way between the tonic (I) and dominant (V)
    F    IV    subdominant - this is the fifth note in the scale if you went from backwards from the tonic (I)
    G    V      dominant - this is the fifth note in the scale and the strongest harmonic note in relation to the tonic (I)
    A    VI    submediant - this is halfway between the tonic (I) and the subdominant (IV)
    B    VII    leading note - this is the last note before the scale returns to the tonic (but one octave above)
    These are important numbers/names and you should remember them as from now we will refer to these notes by their numbers. It is done this way so that when you change the tonic note of the scale then you can just call the new note structures the I, III, V etc.

    now onto those chords.

    for now lets consider these:
    chords are formed on the basis of minimum of three notes called triads. These simply state that the sound will reflect an emotion/mood but as a group or collection of notes rather than a singular note.

    Thus the theory says that for a happy sounding major chord to be played you would require the 1, 3 and 5 note from the scale. This is not the same as I, III and V. This is saying that from whatever note you start on from the major chord is formed out of the 1, 3 and 5 note (or tones (NOT SEMITONES BUT TONES!!!)). Lets get a few examples.

    [font=courier new]
    C major - C (I) E (III) G (V)
    F major - F (IV) A (VI) C (I)
    G major - G (V) B (VII) D (II)
    Now for minor chords in order to make the chord sound slightly sadder you are expected to take the second note of the major chord triad (1, 3, 5 - so we are talking about the 3 here) and flatten it. This means that for minor chords you get 1, 3b and 5. Examples:

    [font=courier new]
    D major - D (II) F (IV) A (VI)
    E major - E (III) G (V) B (VII)
    A major - A (VI) C (I) E (III)
    As you will notice by now that the notes in the scale that are the tonic (I), subdominant (IV) and the dominant (V) are all major chords, and that all the supertonic (II), subdominant (III) and submediant (VI) are all minor chords this holds true for all major scales due to the availability of notes in the scale. You see you cannot play an A major (A C# E) as part of the C major scale because C# does not belong to that scale. However if you changed the 1 3 5 structure of the A major chord to 1 3b 5 then you get A minor (A C E) which does fit. Alternatively you could also adjust the 1 3 5 to 1 4 5 to get Asus4 (A D E) or 1 2 5 to get Asus2 (A B E).

    Thus as you can see there are many combinations that can be made. The rest of the different chords relate to the same thing that i have just said here.

    Now to refer to those numbers that exceed the 7 in the chord structures such as sevenths, ninths, elevenths, thirteenths etc. You see you can extend the C major scale to over two octaves. In which case it will simply read as :
    C D E F G A B C D E F G A B

    Thus the referal of the 9 is the D in the second octave and 11 is F in the second octave.

    Hope that helps, and if there are any mistakes in this then ppl feel free to make your comments. And if its right then give me some god damn mother ****ing reputation :mad:
  5. HimalaYans

    HimalaYans New Member

    Hi..Depth Metal, Disturbed & Mr. Rabi Sultan,
    My hearty Thanks to you all for taking time and providing me the guidance and help to clear off my doubts.
    I Thank Mr. Rabi for giving me the details on the querry raised by me. I shall read, analyze and if not understood will be back to you for the further guidance. I hope you 'll take your time further and guide me. I do play guitar and able to pick up the chords/solo by hearing the songs but I am not that much good as most of the chords like C7, D7, Sus, even minor...etc. I am unable to do it but I do study the chords and try playing it. Also, "LEAD" ( Guitar lead) has been quite difficult for me though I am exercising my little pinky by some exercises previously provided in this forum. So if possible, I would like to request for some more good exercises so as to improve my guitar leading cpacity. I have a dram to become capable guitariest 1DAY.
    Thank you guys once again,
    Long live the world of MUSIC.

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